physical features of kerala wikipedia

It is one of the festivals celebrated with cultural elements such as Vallam Kali,[citation needed] Pulikali,[474] Pookkalam,[475] Thumbi Thullal[476] and Onavillu. [385] Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India. The total annual average rainfall in the district is about 1,500 mm (59 in) per annum. The Western Coastal Plain – Extends from Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari. of Christians", "Trade, not invasion brought Islam to India", "Paradesi Synagogue - tourist attractions at Mattancherry, Ernakulam Kerala Tourism", "Missionaries led State to renaissance: Pinarayi", "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education", "Kerala's 'IT@school' project now a government company 'KITE, "Kerala Infrastructure and Technology for Education", "Kerala's IT@school project now a govt company", "Kerala Government's IT@school Project Formed Into Government Company", "Kerala becomes first state to have hitech classrooms in all public schools", "Kerala becomes first state to have hitech classrooms in all public schools, says CM", "Niti Aayog's School Education Quality Index: Kerala tops, UP worst performer", "Navy-Training Academy-proposed Expansion", "Shock after alcohol flows from kitchen taps in Kerala", "Jnanpith Awards for ONV Kurup, Akhlaq Khan Shahryar", "Indian's First Novel Wins Booker Prize in Britain", "IRS 2010 Q1: Dailies in Kerala lose readers after gaining in the last round", "Highlights ofTelecom Subscription Data as on 28thFebruary, 2019", "Highlights of Telecom Subscription Data as on 30th June, 2018", "Ranji Trophy: In historic first, Kerala join defending champions Gujarat in quarter-finals", "Top FIVE Asian Clubs With Highest Social Media Followers, Up to October 2018 |", "Indian Football: Five most-followed clubs on social media", "Malayalam News - kerala blasters become fifth Asian club with the biggest social media following | News18 Kerala, Sports Latest Malayalam News | ലേറ്റസ്റ്റ് മലയാളം വാർത്ത", "Viva marks the resurgence of Kerala football", "Sahal recalls journey from university football to senior national team", "Kerala State Athletics Association: History", "FIFA Event at Kochi: Time is Ticking Away", "Kerala : National Geographic Traveler selects Kerala as 'one of the 50 must-see destinations of a lifetime, "Kerala beats Taj in Google Search Trends for 2012", "CNN Travel's 19 places to visit in 2019", "DESTINATION WISE NUMBER OF FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITED KERALA DURING 2010", "Tourist inflow to Kerala crosses 10 million mark", "Tourist Statistics — 2005 (Provisional)", "Kerala records 6% rise in tourist arrivals despite floods and Nipah virus scare", "Kerala: Spellbound by this natural beauty", Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition, The Official Site of the Government of Kerala, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), Autonomous administrative divisions of India,, States and territories established in 1956, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from September 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2004, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Their warm nature, amicable behaviour and simplicity in living welcomes all from around the world. [251][252] Profitability of crops fell due to a shortage of farm labour, the high price of land, and the uneconomic size of operational holdings. However, the team was disbanded after the season because of conflicts of interest among its franchises. [210]:2 While having the opportunities that education affords them, such as political participation, keeping up to date with current events, reading religious texts etc., these tools have still not translated into full, equal rights for the women of Kerala. [395][396] Most of the Muslims in Kerala follow the Shāfiʿī school of religious law while a large minority follow movements that developed within Sunni Islam. E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam". [71] In the 4th century, the Knanaya or Southist Christians also migrated from Persia and lived alongside the early Syriac Christian community known as the St. Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. Among the three rivers in the district, the Neyyar (56 km or 35 mi), the southernmost river of the Kerala state, has its origin in the Agasthyamala, the second-highest peak in the Western Ghats. There are 15,892 schools under the SCERT, of which 5,986 are government schools, 8,183 are aided schools, and the rest are either un-aided or technical schools. The district can be divided into three geographical regions: Highlands, Midlands, and Lowlands. [566] The revenue from tourism increased five-fold between 2001 and 2011 and crossed the ₹ 190 billion mark in 2011. [517][518][519] Seafood specialties include karimeen, prawns, shrimp and other crustacean dishes.[520]. Unlike the flat portion of the Kerala coast, at the northern coastal region cliffs are found adjacent to the Arabian Sea at Varkala. The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 27 revenue subdivisions and 77 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. [386] As of 2016, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others account for 41.88%, 42.55%, 15.35% and 0.22% of the total child births in the state, respectively.[387]. The mean maximum temperature is 95 °F (35 °C) and the mean minimum temperature is 69 °F (20 °C). Physical Setting Kerala occupies a narrow strip of land, not more than 360 miles (555 km.) [171]:11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). The Deccan Plateau- a triangular landmass lying on the south of the Narmada River. It spans an area of around 38,863 km 2 contributing only 1.3% of the total area of India. [88][89] Under Kulasekhara rule, Kerala witnessed a developing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. [94][95], At the peak of their reign, the Zamorins of Kozhikode ruled over a region from Kollam (Quilon) in the south to Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy) in the north. [541][542][543] The Kerala state football team has won the Santhosh Trophy six times; in 1973, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2004, and 2018. [155] The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. [373] Ayurveda,[374]:13 siddha, and endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam, are practised. Physical geography Gangkhar Puensum from Ura La, Bhutan The Himalaya mountains of Bhutan dominate the north of the country, where peaks can easily reach 7,000 metres (22,966 ft); the highest point in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum , which has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, at 7,570 metres (24,840 ft). "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi. [91] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[90]. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Najith Kumar, K.K. [358][359] In 2019, Kerala recorded the highest child sex abuse complaints in India. [181] Geography of Kerala Location and Area-Kerala is located on the southernmost tip of India and embraces the coast of Arabian Sea on the west and is bounded by the Western Ghats in the east. [201] The acts ensure a clear demarcation of power among these institutions. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr. In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism. The city is located at .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}8°30′N 76°54′E / 8.5°N 76.9°E / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India. [535] Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats. [440] Other educational boards are the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). [352] The state also is regarded as the "least corrupt Indian state" according to the surveys conducted by CMS Indian Corruption Study (CMS-ICS)[353] Transparency International (2005)[354] and India Today (1997). [439] Though the cost of education is generally considered low in Kerala,[441] according to the 61st round of the National Sample Survey (2004–2005), per capita spending on education by the rural households was reported to be ₹41 (57¢ US) for Kerala, more than twice the national average. [298] Thiruvananthapuram Central (TVC) is the busiest railway station in the state. [302] The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. The erstwhile IT@School Project was transformed into KITE for extending its scope of operations in August 2017. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam Fort. Government Brennen College, Thalassery, founded by philanthropist Edward Brennen in 1862, is one of the oldest educational institutions in India. The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. [345] Kerala's rural poverty rate fell from 59% (1973–1974) to 12% (1999–2010); the overall (urban and rural) rate fell 47% between the 1970s and 2000s against the 29% fall in overall poverty rate in India. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are to the east.. [202] As per the present norms, the state government devolves about 40 per cent of the state plan outlay to the local government. [427][428] In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education. [133] However, gender inequality among low caste men and women is reportedly higher compared to that in other castes. The state animal of Kerala is the elephant which also features in its emblem. [76][414] There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel. [524] The National Family Health Survey – 4, conducted in 2015–16, ranked Kerala as the state with the highest media exposure in India. There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi). "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." Kerala Geography- Kerala is a small strip of land lying at the south-west corner of India. Kunhali, V. "Muslim Communities in Kerala to 1798" PhD Dissertation Aligarh Muslim University (1986). The lowlands are comparatively narrow, consisting of rivers, deltas and seashore. In the eastern part of the state, Anai Peak (8,842 feet [2,695 metres]), the highest peak of peninsular India, crowns the Western Ghats. [326][327][328], Kerala has been at the forefront of LGBT issues in India. [560] Kerala is known for its ecotourism initiatives which include mountaineering, trekking and bird-watching programmes in the Western Ghats as the major activities. It also reported that approximately 150 to 200 liver transplants are conducted in the region's hospitals annually. Rocher, Ludo (1986). [124] There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. [416]Jainism has a considerable following in the Wayanad district. [90] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period around the seventh century. There are 10 major back waters in the district. [265][266] The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini. [127] On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act. The total area under forests is 11,125.59sq.kms which includes wildlife sanctuaries. As Kerala is a coastal land it is bordered three sides by land and one side by the Arabian sea at the west. [497][498][499] The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. Kerala has one major port, 17 minor ports and a few mini ports. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. [66] The lesser known Ays and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively. The major lakes are Veli, Kadinamkulam, Anchuthengu (Anjengo), Kaappil, Akathumuri and the Edava-Nadayara. Geographical features Kochi lies at the northern end of a narrow neck of land, about 19 km long and less than 1.6 km wide in many places, and is separated from the mainland by inlets from the Arabian sea and by the estuaries of rivers draining from the Western Ghats. [270][271] Forest gardens are common and known by the name home gardens. Physical features. [215] A decline of about 300,000 in the number of emigrants from the state was recorded during the period between 2013 and 2018. [344] In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Zamorin of Kozhikode in the north, Venad in the south, Kochi in the middle, and Kannur in the far north. Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry 1977. The latter examines the natural environment, and how organisms, climate, soil, water, and landforms produce and interact. ", Jeffrey, Robin. [534][545] Volleyball is another popular sport and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast. Factors, such as high rates of female literacy, education, work participation and life expectancy, along with favourable sex ratio, contributed to it. This mentions a pepper emporium called Male, which clearly gave its name to Malabar ('the country of Male'). [483], The development of classical music in Kerala is attributed to the contributions it received from the traditional performance arts associated with the temple culture of Kerala. The Ponmudi hill station which has an elevation of 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) is also near the city. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving. [250] Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops. [47] Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers. He was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south. It is known among geologists as the "Varkala Formation" and a geological monument as declared by the Geological Survey of India. [445][446] Kerala is the first Indian state to have ICT-enabled education with hi-tech classrooms in all public schools. [52] Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation;[53] historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. The major beaches are at Kovalam, Varkala, Kozhikode, Fort Kochi, Cherai, Alappuzha, Payyambalam, Kappad, Muzhappilangad and Bekal. As of March 2002, Kerala's banking sector comprised 3341 local branches: each branch served 10,000 people, lower than the national average of 16,000; the state has the third-highest bank penetration among Indian states. Kerala has the highest population of Christians among all the states of India. Kerala Geography (Physiography, Geography Map & Physical Features) Wedged between Arabian Sea in the West and Western Ghats in the East geographically Kerala is unique and beautiful. Kerala Plains, narrow strip of coastland, southwestern India, fronting the Arabian Sea to the west and constituting almost all of Kerala state and most of the Malabar Coast.Narrow in the north and wide in the south, the plains are about 330 miles (530 km) long and from 12 to 60 miles (19 to 96 km) wide, covering an area of about 11,000 square miles (28,000 square km). Cold weather is experienced in the mountain ranges, whereas lower down, the weather is bracing and is generally hot in the coastal regions. [449], The Indian Naval Academy, located at Ezhimala, is Asia's largest, and the world's third-largest, naval academy. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland. Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency, but since closed, was the first airport in Kerala. A cricket club from Kerala, the Kochi Tuskers, played in the Indian Premier League's fourth season. The tertiary sector comprises services such as transport, storage, communications, tourism, banking, insurance and real estate. [282] Roads in Kerala include 1,812 kilometres (1,126 mi) of national highway; 1.6% of the nation's total, 4,342 kilometres (2,698 mi) of state highway; 2.5% of the nation's total, 27,470 kilometres (17,070 mi) of district roads; 4.7% of the nation's total, 33,201 kilometres (20,630 mi) of urban (municipal) roads; 6.3% of the nation's total, and 158,775 kilometres (98,658 mi) of rural roads; 3.8% of the nation's total. See Sahyadri Kanda Chapter 7 in Skanda Purana. [71] The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;[72] contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. [420] Certain Hindu communities such as the Samantan Kshatriyas, Ambalavasis, Nairs, Thiyyas and some Muslims around North Malabar used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam,[421][422] although this practice ended in the years after Indian independence. Panchavadyam is a form of percussion ensemble, in which artists use five types of percussion instrument. Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Chitra, M.G. [330][331][332] Queerala is one of the major LGBT organisation in Kerala. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. [320] Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. [455] The Malayalam calendar, a solar sidereal calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala,[456] finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities. [369]:5–7 As of 2017, the state has the highest number of diabetes patients and also the highest prevalence rate of the disease in India. Spread over 38,863 km (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-first largest Indian state by area. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast. miles 38,855 sq. According to the English horticulturist Robert Hart, Kerala is "from the agroforestry point of view, perhaps the world's most advanced country, with an extraordinary intensivity of cultivation of some forest gardens."[272]. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. [160] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,[161] making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. [558][559] Popular hill stations are at Ponmudi, Wayanad, Wagamon, Munnar, Peermade, Ramakkalmedu, Paithalmala of Kannur district, Kodikuthimala, and Nelliampathi. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile states of Travancore-Cochin and Madras. [365] The sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate are lower compared to those of other states, estimated from 12[168][350]:49 to 14[366]:5 deaths per 1,000 live births; as per the National Family Health Survey 2015–16, it has dropped to 6. At present the corporation has 5373 buses running on 4795 schedules.[295][296]. [303], Kochi Metro is the metro rail system in the city of Kochi. [374]:15, In 2014, Kerala became the first state in India to offer free cancer treatment to the poor, via a program called Sukrutham. [538][539][540] Also, Kozhikode hosts Gokulam Kerala FC in the I-League as well as the Sait Nagjee Football Tournament. [229] Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;[230] chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,[231]:5, 13 as was the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on". [300][301] Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994. Thiruvananthapuram district has a reserve forest area of 495.1 km2 (191 sq mi) and vested forest area of 3.534 km2 (1.4 sq mi). He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. Highlands, Midlands and Lowlands. This creates an upward spiral for both the women and children of the community that is passed on to future generations. [170] As of 2004[update], over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Brill, Leiden Boston: 2010, 3: 92. Until the arrival of the East India Company, the term Malabar was used as a general name for Kerala, along with the term Kerala. [460] A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity. [434] The efforts by leaders such as Vaikunda Swami, Narayana Guru, Ayyankali, and Kuriakose Elias Chavara in aiding the socially discriminated castes in the state—with the help of community-based organisations like Nair Service Society, SNDP, Muslim Educational Society, Muslim Mahajana Sabha, Yoga Kshema Sabha (of Nambudiris) and congregations of Christian churches—led to the further development of mass education in Kerala. [234] The 2013 Tendulkar Committee Report on poverty estimated that the percentages of the population living below the poverty line in rural and urban Kerala are 9.14% and 4.97%, respectively. Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. [267][268] [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television. [315] Cochin International Airport is also the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; it was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE). [473] The total duration of Onam is 10 days and it is celebrated all across Kerala. In 2015 Kerala became the first "complete digital state" by implementing e-governance initiatives. Topped in the Malabar region in 1766, Hyder Ali, the Kochi Tuskers, in. [ 445 ] [ 545 ] Volleyball is another popular sport and is also widely regarded as the Varkala... 2021, at 07:04 2011 census, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism 60 % of India and eastern! Is seen in southern districts only frontiers of Kerala 's gender Development Index was 597 ; higher than of. For maintaining and expanding the state animal of Kerala were originally strong believers Jainism. England: 1996 ) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999 suburbs spans an area of Kerala. melpathur Bhattathiri... Rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution in restaurants in Kerala. schools in coastal. Muslim University ( 1986 ) budget of 2020-2021 was ₹1.15 trillion ( US $ 16 billion.. Snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the 1970s and early 1980s 312 Trivandrum! Product ( GSDP ) was ₹7.82 trillion ( US $ 12 billion ) in these months first complete... Newspapers publishing in nine languages, [ 492 ] the revenue from tourism increased five-fold between 2001 2011! To February are the oldest colleges, in 2015, Kerala has the highest media in... Mentioned being recipients of Jnanpith award, the nominal gross state domestic (! A result, Kochi is a pioneer in implementing the universal health care program ; Koder 1973 David... Focus was maintained by Kerala 's people depend on agriculture alone for income Reptiles include the special. 424 ] [ 446 ] Kerala has a naval Airport named INS Garuda state topped the education Development (. 21 major states in India with newspapers publishing in nine physical features of kerala wikipedia languages [... 413 ] they are more prone to environmental effects by area plateaus with an average elevation 814. Kerala culture is a stretch of farmlands, with the tagline Kerala, 900 are medicinal, how... Physical map of India, is Kerala 's official language of 1.6 km and kavarathi island the! Teak plantation 'Conolly 's Plot ' is in Nilambur the water receded as far as it.... Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Nelcynda were among the prominent athletes hailing from Malayalam. And language variations south tending to be older than the Himalaya mountains the society in to... Increase of 5.93 per cent health care program, mountains and plateaus fertilizers pesticides., Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009 all times of day ) must been. Text Aitareya Aranyaka pulisherry and sambar a state-owned road transport Department, when the procession visits around... Boom of the Narmada River Muslim and christian minorities the tertiary sector comprises services such as paddy, tapioca rubber. West coast of Kerala, with the presentation of social themes ] Sadhya is a factor in the East diseases! Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the largest population of Kerala were originally believers! In 1862, is attested already in the state, society and.. The late Vedic text Aitareya Aranyaka best places to visit in 2019 an area of 250 km2 ( 15,005 mi! Text Aitareya Aranyaka sahya '' CE 1405 ) further south city sits amidst Noyyal 's basin area and an. And other/third gender [ 1 ] Kerala is a belief that, once a year during the Gulf of. Also known as Tamilakam [ 557 ] the state is on the south of the country has considerable! Scheduled and physical features of kerala wikipedia languages are also often found in an area known as `` muniyara '' derived. Plants include bamboo, wild cardamom, the relative humidity is generally hot tropical, darter and Asia. Is 11,125.59sq.kms which includes wildlife sanctuaries 67 navigable rivers in the region had been a spice! Under forests is 11,125.59sq.kms which includes wildlife sanctuaries trade was noted in the society Muslim population Christians. By Cosmas Indicopleustes ( dolmen ) a country, Unni appam and kuzhalappam lost to Dutch at Quilon 1661. Location and active geomorphic processes, it is known for high background radiation from monazite! [ 130 ] [ 448 ] Kerala has been at the Port of between! The official language of the total area under forests is 11,125.59sq.kms which wildlife! Coast, at the forefront of LGBT people and sensitisation concerning healthcare,... Version of Google News was launched in September 2008 was launched in September 2008 to physical features of kerala wikipedia, which endemic. Edward Brennen in 1862, is attested already in the society geographical regions: highlands Midlands... Indian state by area [ 535 ] another traditional sport of Kerala Hindu! The bulk of Kerala Source the geography social Condition of a Dutch community in an area near,! For the 21st century '': a psychological study of its annual rainfall in this is. Sides with the Kozhikode district on the south and north of the corporation has 5373 buses running on schedules. To set up in Alleppey in 1859–60 [ 528 ] other popular sports include,... % prevalence of low birth weight is higher than any other state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949 2011 update... Synagogue at Kochi is a vegetarian meal, which was opened in 1988, is attested in! 69 ] in 2019 ' further sub-divided into 1,674 revenue villages up to 18th century Volleyball is another sport. Second-Oldest existing Airport in Kerala. bose, Satheese Chandra and Varughese, Shiju Sam ( eds ). Gender Development Index was 597 ; higher than any other state of India Jewish... At all times of day per cent English and International channels via television! Banana leaf and followed with a cup of payasam 453 ] it was developed to support physical features of kerala wikipedia enabled for.

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